Radio Opacity Tests

Radio Opacity Tests

Three microparticle additives, tungsten (W), zirconium oxide (ZrO 2) and barium sulfate (BaSO 4) shape memory polymer (SMP), were selected to improve the radioopacity of the foam biomaterial. The addition of filler causes significant changes in glass transition temperatures, as material density increases, diameter decreases pore and total volume recovery 20 times (percent 4 W and ZrO unfilled foam decreases approximately 70 times 2). The addition of W increases the recovery time; ZrO 2 causes little change over time to shape healing; BaSO 4 increases the recovery time. 2.00 has the average XD value of a GDC coil standard 0.62 on the average X-ray intensity (average XD) scale; percent 4 W increases the average XD between 1.89, ZrO 2 to 1.39 and KaS04 to 0.74. Radio-opacity enhancing additives can be used to produce controlled shape memory kinetics, low density and X-ray opacity SMP foams developed for medical materials.

Radio Opacity Tests

N, N, N ', N' -tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine (to hPED, Sigma Aldrich), triethanolamine (TEA, 98, Sigma Aldrich) and 2,2,4-trimethyl hexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI, TCI America, 2, 2, 4 and 2, a mixture of 4, 4 monomers) were monomers used in the synthesis. BaSO 4 (particle size 3 microns, Sigma Aldrich), ZrO 2 (particle size 5 microns, Sigma Aldrich) and W (particle size 1 microns, .95, Alpha Aesar). additives. Both monomers and additives are used without modification.

Foam Synthesis

SMP thermoset foams are prepared using the compositions reported by EUROLAB. 3These three monomers were reacted at room temperature from a heating cycle of 6 hour, from a ramp between 20 C s to 50 C to form a prepolymer mixture which was allowed to cool after being held at 16 hour. room temperature and in a nitrogen chamber until used. The alcohols of the ratio of 50 to 2: 100: 40 are allowed to form a network where the pre-polymer mixture was made XNUMX days prior to foaming. Second, an alcohol premix is ​​made containing stoichiometric amounts of alcohols, surfactants and catalysts.

The final step is the combination of both premixes with one of the types of additives and physical blowing agents using high speed mixing to synthesize homogeneous foams. The examined concentration of 16 g of a foam additives is 1 percent (0.831 g BaSO 4, 0.907 g for ZrO, 2W and 3554 g), and 4 8 percent 3.324 g BaSO 4, 3.626 g for , 2). Particle dispersion in the foams was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

SEM of a Microscope using 15.0 kV power and first sample distance and 15 mm. The magnification of 112 is studied using 332 using both back scatter and secondary scatter and back reflection; The sample distance is changed from 15mm to give the best view. The density of the foams was dependent on the gas concentration in the foam during synthesis, and thus the amounts of surfactants, catalysts, physical and chemical blowing agents are changed to achieve the maximum effective gas concentration without causing cell rupture. The foam is evaluated for homogeneous pores prior to cleaning and processing. After cleaning, the foams are dried and stored in a sealed container with a desiccant,

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